welcome to the site! Read the description to the left for details regarding the theory behind this site. Some may know this section as an "Abstract"
The History of Energy
the beginning is the end
Under this section is a paper written for an Honours Psychology course, the History of Psychology. The task was to trace a topic from contemperary Psychology back through various historical stages to see how that topic has grown over the course of time. The topic I chose was energy, or Energy Psychology. Enjoy research from Feinstein (most recent) all the way back to Pythagoras.
The Future of Energy
the end is the beginning. This section includes all the previous homepage fails ;) enjoy!
This is the major veiwpoint taken on this site in regard to these topics, but since the completion of my Masters degree in Gender Studies, I've been trying to go back and make it more inclusive. This link includes a proposed field theory for Psychology because the two major branches of Psychology (quantitative and qualitative) find it hard to see eye to eye. This (and the next) section is for members only.
This section proposes a Grand Unified Field theory or "theory of everything" for Physics, backed up by a mathematical equation.
This section unites all sections together to unite the branches of Science and Religion. Many different perspectives are taken and these two seemingly opposing forces are united through many different angles.
This section looks at the conflicts or cycles between New Age free thought and Orthodox dogmaticism. The feud between these two opposing forces revealed the truth regarding the story of Jesus, what he really taught and to whom he truly gave the rites to teach his faith. This section explores why the movie The Last Temptation of Christ was banned in other countries, looks at the Da Vinci Code and presents a controversial paper/theory showing the hidden meaning of world religious symbols.
This section begins with a confusing paper about taking back the spirit. If the point can be penetrated, it tells an interesting story about Modernity and the Age of Reason, with a twist by providing evidence that emotion could be considered superior to reason. It also complicates Carteasian mind/body distinctions by adding spirit back into the equation. Have fun following that one lol. I can't even follow it ;) There are other papers about explaining Mystical experiences and others comparing Western and Eastern styles of consciousness. My favourite is the book review of Kabbalah. I like how this site allows me to go back and fix/reword old papers/ideas. This section really details what it is like to have a theory in the making and shows how ideas develop over time. One day my ideas/theory will be comprehensive to others outside my wacky brain :)
This section includes research done on the importance of emotional charge on ESP communication. It proposes that it is emotion communication that makes telepathy successful. The second paper in this section addresses dreams and dream interpretation. Two Dream interpretation methods (Freud's and Jung's) were analyzed to determine which method produced the most accurate results. The third paper presents research on Understanding Altered States of Conciousness and the last paper in this section is about Western Consciousness and how we are very individualized and perhaps out of balance due to us being lost in the Grand Illusion (Maya). The next paper looks at The Implication of Eastern Concepts on Western Ideals, to propose a potential balance between the two world views.
This section includes a paper about the subject-object dichotomy in Philosophy
This section begins with a work that is a detailed analysis of the screenplay/poem found in the Art section of this site. This paper looks at the research behind the play that inspired its manifestation (or why I wrote the play). It is hard to avoid the Book of Revelations when the topic of the Apocalypse comes up, so the next paper in this section is a comparison of the similarities and differences of the Book of Daniel and the Book of Revelations. Many similarities were found and the research leads one to beleive that we are in the dawning of the Age when we will see great changes in the world as we know it today.
This section includes papers on 3 pathways to happiness (physical, mental, emotional), followed by a paper on how to end prejudice, a paper on the polarization of the sexes is next (as it is hypothesized by this site that the true or pure unification of All That is in the Universe is solved by the reunification of the energy of the sexes ;). Finally, this section ends with an empirical thesis exploring the equal validation or rational and emotional styles.
This section contains a play or screenplay called the Grand Drama that is written entirely out of prose (the owner and creator of this website has personally written everything that appears on it). This work of art reveals a hidden message, one that may unlock the key to the mysteries of the universe! This page also includes a shortened poem of the Grand Drama and provides a link to a song that is about Plato's Analogy of the Cave (members only).
this is a collection of my poetry - enjoy!
This is a collection of my songs - enjoy! =)
This is my photo collection
Key to the Legend
Red = Philosophy
Blue = Physics
Yellow = mathematics
green = hard sciences
grey = psychology
the parts under construction are labeled as such or blanketed by <<< ____ >>> indicating personal notes to self to improve the site, or the layout of the information presented.
History of Psychology
The History of Energy
Energy Psychology is a controversial new addition to the branch of Psychology referred to as Positive Psychology. Energy Psychology (EP) is about understanding and utilizing the energy behind the universe for personal growth and healing (Feinstein, 2008). EP refers to this type of energy as ?subtle energy,? which is similar to what Einstein believes to be the ?ponderable matter? behind all things in the universe (Einstein, 1956, p.75). This energy is also similar to that of Miller?s ether (DeMeo, 2004) and Quantum Physics? zero-point. Zero-point energy is defined by Einstein (1956) as the simplest or lowest frequency possible for energy to exist. Other characteristics of this energy include omnipresence and the transcendence of time and space; it can also survive in a vacuum and can be reflected by metal (DeMeo, 2004).
Most all encompassing theories about energy believe that there is a particular particle that binds the universe together. Energy Psychology calls this particle the ?God Particle? (Personal communication, M. Becker, November 10, 2008). In Quantum Physics this particle has previously been termed the tachyon (tachion) (Hardy, Hardy, Killik & Killik, 1987). Einstein (1956) also contemplated a particle behind all things that he termed a quantum harmonic oscillator. More contemporary research on the Higgs boson has replaced these older terms for this particle, but the concept that this particle permeates the universe and acts as the glue that binds the universe together remains the same. To simplify, there is a field that unites all particles and a particle that is ubiquitous that binds the material world with the world of pure energy that acts as a mediator between the realms or fields of each world. The Grand Patchwork theory supports the idea that infinite fields within fields are possible. There is other compelling research regarding E=mc^2 that states if this equation is true, fields are not needed. This will have to be further discussed in a different section or in my blog section.
According to Energy Psychology this ?subtle energy? permeates the universe, including humans. Individuals can access this energy through meridians, which are ley lines or pathways of energy that run through the body (Feinstein, 2008). These meridians have been used in acupuncture and acupressure therapies in Eastern culture for centuries (Personal communication, M. Becker, November10, 2008). The body?s manifestation of subtle energy can also be described as Chakras which are concentrated points of energy in the body which can be accessed, according to Hindu tradition through yoga and/or meditation (Rama, 1984).
Another feature of EP?s subtle energy manifest in the body is the auric field. The auric field consists of seven layers of energy that extend outward from the body; each layer is of a different frequency (Personal communication, M. Becker, November10, 2008). Individuals can use this auric field to assess information about people and the environment by acting like an antenna, tuning into other people?s auric fields. It is also through this antenna mechanism that individuals can tune into the subtle energy of the universe. This auric field is not a new idea and has also been termed a bio-field (Reich, 1960) or ?morphic resonance? that is said to surround the body and its organs (Sheldrake, 1988).
It could be said that Energy Psychology is a field theory of its own because it is all encompassing as it desires to unite two major forces (the self and the universe). The self and the universe represent a microcosm and macrocosm dichotomy. The union of these opposites or the tapping into this subtle energy is said to result in psychological and physiological healing (Feinstein, 2008). It has been found that psychological and emotional problems can be treated by realigning or balancing one?s Meridians, Chakras, and/or auric field (Feinstein, 2008). Case study research has shown that therapists trained in various techniques have helped individuals utilize this energy for healing with positive results (Fienstein, 2008; Personal communication, M. Becker, November 10, 2008). This paper will examine other research in Energy Psychology and trace its origins back throughout history.
The specific empirical study chosen for this paper was the expanded version of Feinstein?s (2008) ?Energy Psychology in Disaster Relief.? Here Energy Psychology is used as therapy in response to catastrophic or man-made disasters. Techniques such as acupressure (Reiki) and yoga are used to relieve stress in an individual by sending signals to the amygdala to reduce hyper-arousal in the face of adversity (Feinstein, 2008). Many case studies and observations (anecdotal evidence) have shown EP methods to reduce immediate stress, extinguish certain conditional responses such as phobias, overcome complex problems and help promote optimal functioning (Feinstein, 2008). The article shows an extremely high success rate but, the reliability of these findings is problematic due to research design flaws (Feinstein, 2008). Therefore, another goal of this paper is to help Energy Psychology become more accepted by the field of Psychology by suggesting better methodologies for future research on the topic.
Energy Psychology in the Systems Era
Even though Energy Psychology is somewhat functional because it is about the function of this energy and is ideological in nature, because it can lead a person towards Enlightenment (Personal communication, M. Becker, November10, 2008), the major system most closely aligned with this research would be Psychoanalysis. This is because those who are trained in psychotherapy work with individuals who have a wide range of life problems including mental and emotional conflicts (much like those treated with EP methods). In Psychotherapy the patient is not told directly about how to solve his or her own problems, but instead, using non-directed, or insight oriented techniques, the psychoanalyst aims to get at the source of emotional or psychological problems. Therefore, Psychoanalysis is an apt system for EP to reside because it is used as a type of therapy.
Wilhelm Reich is an excellent example of a researcher in this system that worked with the type of energy described by Energy Psychology. Reich too has used this energy for healing purposes. He noticed that people repress their emotions so much that it can cause emotional and psychological problems, creating an emotional barrier he called armour or muscular armour (Reich, 1960). The repression of emotional energy was said to create internal conflict of energies Reich called bioenergetic tension and called the energy itself orgone (DeMeo, 1998). He believed this orgone energy to be observable to the naked eye through a microscope and is experienced through emotionality and sexuality (Reich, 1960; Reich, 1961).
The appearance of orgone is a glowing field of energy with a bluish colour that is found around living organisms including people, animals, mountain ranges, trees, and even around the Earth itself (DeMeo, 1998). This orgone energy is defined by Reich (1960) as ?Primordial Cosmic Energy; universally present and demonstrable? (p. 11). Reich has measured this energy and has found it to be universally present, behaves according to law and pulses rhythmically (DeMeo, 1998). It has also been found that all matter attracts this type of energy, fills all space and can exist in a vacuum acting as zero-point energy fluctuations (DeMeo, 2004). This is exactly like the characteristics of EP?s subtle energy and Physic?s zero-point energy. Reich not only acknowledged that orgone energy had physical properties, but also suggested the energy displayed a spiral-like, dynamic behaviour (DeMeo, 2004).
Orgone is also directly related to Energy Psychology because its blue-glowing appearance could be similar to EP?s description of an auric field around the body (See Figure 1).
Orgone can also be likened to EP?s energy because Reich?s (1960) orgone therapy explains that emotion can create a plasmatic flow that stream along the body axis, very much like Meridians discussed earlier (Reich, 1960). Also along the body axis are what he calls armour rings that cause blockages to this orgone energy flow (Reich, 1960). These armour rings are a lot like Chakras points because these rings lie along the body in similar regions.
Reich, like those involved with EP also claimed to heal with this energy by helping people dissolve their body armour using something called an orgone box. Reich believed his orgone energy to be that of life energy, and believed God to be life (Reich, 1960). He also claimed there was a particle at the root of this energy called a Bion (Reich, 1961), much like Quantum Physics and EP?s ?God particle? analogy. Both EP and Orgonomy therapeutic methods could be utilizing or tapping into the same type of energy, which is why Reich and Psychoanalysis is the system where previous research in Energy Psychology can be found.
The system that would disagree most with Energy Psychology would be Behaviourism because this system needs tangible and definitive evidence such as observable behaviour in order for EP or orgone to be accredited to healing. The evidence for the effects of Energy Psychology is based on case studies and is anecdotal in nature. Behaviourists would not accept Energy Psychology as part of psychology or science because they would not accept anecdotal evidence as valid evidence that healing actually results. In determining the effects of EP?s therapeutic methods, researchers rely heavily on self report which Behaviourists would say to be problematic and prone to desirability effects and bias. They would also be quick to point out the empirical design flaws such as lack of proper controls for extraneous variables. Behaviourists would thus also notice that in their attempts at experimental design, control groups were not used (Feinstein, 2008). The next section contains research evidence for the existence of subtle energy from a different methodology, that of experimental design.
Experimental Research on Subtle Energy
Taking Behaviourist criticisms into consideration in regard to Energy Psychology, it is necessary for future research to conduct better experimental designs to add to the case study and anecdotal research, using proper controls and control groups. Experimental research however has been done in psychology on this subtle energy in the past but by Reich.
A lot of Reich?s experiments used what was called an orgone box or orgone accumulator (Reich, 1960; DeMeo, 1998). This is described as a booth or room made of organic material on the outside, said to accumulate the orgone energy, and a metal lining on the inside said to conduct the energy (Reich, 1960). The temperature inside the box was measurably different than the temperature outside the box. Reich took this to be evidence that orgone energy was indeed collected inside (DeMeo, 1998). Inside the box or room was a chair for a participant suffering from and ailment due to the depletion of orgone energy, so that person could be replenished thus having healing effects. But most researchers were sceptical and maintain that he had no hard evidence that the box was actually accumulating orgone energy (DeMeo, 1998).
Reich?s evidence that the box accumulated orgone energy came from an electroscope device that is similar to a contemporary device called a ?Life-Energy Field Meter? (available on-line for $329.95). It was said to measure this energy by emitting ?a high voltage oscillating electric field connected unipolarly to a series of metal plates [and a] light bulb connected to these plates illuminated when living things approached or were placed on the test plate? (DeMeo, 1998, p.2). Many of Reich?s followers have said they have replicated Reich?s method with positive results (DeMeo, 1998). But, the same criticisms made against EP have been made about Reich because he did not use a control group by comparing energy with a box that was not lined with metal or that was not designed to absorb this energy. Later, Reich approached Einstein and told him that extraneous variables could not be controlled for by this Field Meter device and that it could affect the interpretation of the results of these experiments (DeMeo, 1998).
Contemporary experiments have been run with the Field Meter providing evidence that there is some sort of energy present in living or once-living organisms that dissipates over time (Marett, 2003). An experiment by Marett (2003) picked a leaf from an Impatience plant and hooked it up to the device. A reading was taken before and after the leaf was placed on the metal plate to show there is an energy reading from the leaf (See Figure 2). The life energy readings continued to decrease as the leaf decayed. (Marett, 2003).
Figure 2: Contemporary Experiments done with tje field meter (Marett, 2003).
Experiments by Moss (1974) have replicated these findings using Kirlian photography showing an auric field or bioenergy surrounding organisms (See Figure 3); notice the ?auric field? around the leaf in each picture.
In Kirlian photography, a similar device is used that takes a ?picture? electrically with electrodes attached to two metal plates with an emulsified film sandwiched inside. The object is placed on the film between the plates and a picture of the object?s auric field is taken as the electrical current is put though the device (Spencer, 1992; Moss, 1974). The Kirlian perspective is important here because it adds further methodological guidelines. Dr. Yoshiaki Omura who is a member of the Kirlian Research Association has proposed 24 different rules for providing better controls for future experiments using these devices (Spencer, 1992). These guidelines are appended.
Nikola Tesla also deserves mentioning here because he too did experiments with this type of energy but believed to tap into ley lines or energy concentration points in the Earth itself (Hardy, et al., 1987). An antenna device called the Tesla coil (available for $1000) was used to tune into the subtle energy of the Earth and it was found that inexpensive energy could be produced; see Figure 4 (Hardy, et al., 1987).
Theoretically, these ley lines or energy concentration points in the Earth could reflect Meridians and Chakra points respectively. Therefore, the Earth too may have Meridian and Chakra points like the body, making the antenna a common analogy and another macrocosm/microcosm reflection.
The harder evidence for Reich?s orgone energy however has come from research found in Physics. Some research involved lesions made to a horse and have found evidence for tendon healing, using an acoustic device (Bauer, Cooper, Jenks & Fleming, 2004). The device used in this research emits audible frequencies ranging from 100 to 1600 Hz and are delivered both directly to the lesion and along Meridians or acupressure points located in the horse?s body (Bauer et. al, 2004). Evidence of healing was provided by ultrasonographic imaging. The theory behind this research reflects that of Energy Psychology by using both Self Field Theory (SFT) and Quantum Field Theory (QFT), the former reflecting the auric field and the latter the ?God particle? and/or subtle energy idea of EP.
This work also added electromagnetic field properties to this theory and the research shows how ?EM interactions are fundamental to workings of biological tissues? (Bauer et al, 2004, p.1). Through the harder sciences and experimental research, gathered orgone energy has shown to stimulate plant growth, have healing effects such as tissue regeneration and can produce heat (DeMeo, 2004) and energy (Hardy, et al., 1987). Therefore, most of Reich?s ideas have been replicated by scientists and other researchers with positive results.
Energy Psychology in the Founder Era
Fechner would be very interested in Energy Psychology. Although Fechner was not involved in healing per se, his theories could be applied directly to those of Energy Psychology. Fechner?s biggest endeavour was to unite the material world with the spiritual world and/or science with religion (Personal communication, H. Hunt, September 9, 2008). He also attempted to unite mind and body (Heidelberger, 2004) He dabbled in many fields of research, including, electromagnetism and came up with a Field Theory of his own, reflected in his work on ?Conservation of Force? (Heidelberger, 2004). This theory was said to trace all effects of nature down to gravitational forces such as repulsion and attraction and saw the material world as nothing more than a collective system of molecules (Heidelberger, 2004). He also believed a mathematical formula called the Golden Section or Phi (0.618) to reflect aesthetic beauty and noticed that different proportions and body parts followed this magical mathematical equation. The Golden Section is a proportion used a lot in art, architecture such as the Parthenon in Greece and can be found in the spiral patterns in nature such as shells.
Fechner also formulated a theory called Panpsychism that suggested consciousness permeated the universe (Benjafield, 2005). Consciousness, however, was a word interchangeable with soul, sentience and experience throughout his explanation of Panpsychism (Skrbina, 2005). Panpsychism is said to have three major characteristics (1) Conscious experience is private and subjective (2) this experience is singular and due to this unitary experience, matter and energy are not separate concepts but one thing and (3) all things or objects have varying degrees of arrangement or organization of matter and energy and thus any embodiment of a configuration of matter and energy should be considered of equal value (Skrbina, 2005). It has also been said that through Panpsychism, Fechner proposed a world-mind or world-soul (Clark, 2004), which is not dissimilar to Energy Psychology because consciousness could act like or be compared to an energy field (Clark, 2004). So, Fechner?s ?God particle? is consciousness (or soul) because it too is said to permeate the universe and his force is repulsion and attraction.
Fechner?s theory of conservation of force combined with his theory of Panpsychism could be considered a Field Theory because it desires to unify two opposing forces. His two opposing forces however were that of spirit (Panpsychism) and matter (Conservation of Force) whereas EP desires to unite the self (body energy) with the universe (subtle energy). Comparing these again to Quantum Physics, Physicists desire to unite the Standard Model (which involves particle physics of electromagnetism, strong and weak interactions) to that of General Relativity (Gravity and nature of space and time) (Weinberg, 1999). In essence, it could be said that Quantum Physics, too desires to unite spirit (quantum physics, dynamic principles and/or interactions) and matter (gravity, space and time).
Fechner, however also desired to unite the mind and body, but it could be seen that on some level, uniting mind and body is the same quest as uniting spirit (mind/soul) with matter (body). When Fechner was younger, he formulated a theory of Psychophysical Parallelism which stated that both mind and body have their own causal effects on each other and are reciprocal (Heidelberger, 2004). The definition of Psychophysical Parallelism as defined by Benjafield (2005) states the parallelism that exists between body and mind (or soul) can allow for the understanding of the one through the other. Perhaps Fechner?s ideas could involve healing because from a contemporary perspective it could be seen that Psychophysical Parallelism could reflect the Biopsychosocial Model of health. The Biopsychosocial model approach to healing states that (along with social influences), the mind effects the body and the body effects the mind (reciprocity). For example, mental characteristics such as optimism and the ability to find meaning, has been shown protect health (Taylor, Kemeny, Reed, Bower & Gruenewald, 2000).
Fechner?s ideas may add physiological and questionnaire measures to research done in Energy Psychology. If the body is a reflection of the mind and the mind a reflection of the body, then before and after physiological measures may provide important information in determining true health and recovery (rather than relying only on self report). Perhaps before and after Field Meter readings could also be recorded! Questionnaires measuring the individual?s optimism, happiness, locus of control, realistic perception of death, social support, and religiosity (or whatever other relevant variable desired) could also provide interesting information because these are all positively related to physical health (Taylor et al, 2000; MacLean, Walker & Matsuba, 2004; Aspinwall & Brunhart, 1996; Peterson, 2006; Personal communication, S. Sadava, November 24, 2008).
Wilhelm Wundt would be a figure from this era who would disagree with Fechner (and the Biopsychosocial model of health) because Wundt argued that mind and body interactions were not equal or reciprocal (Heidelberger, 2004). Wundt?s version of Psychophysical Parallelism is called partial parallelism because he believed interaction to occur only in one direction, from body to the mind and not the other way around. According to Wundt, if there were true reciprocity, it occurred only when the percept organized information as it came in from the senses (Heidelberger, 2004). So, Wundt would say that the body affects the mind, but not necessarily the other way around.
Energy Psychology in European Philosophers
Leibniz, who desired to unite the soul with the body by examining the mind (Liebniz, 1714, last printed 1965), is the next logical figure going back in history who would be interested in Energy Psychology. This would be because of his theory of Monads, or Monadology. Monadology states that monads, which are tiny particles that permeate the universe that act like an energy field when together, each having their own holistic dynamic pattern that have their own influence (Personal communication H. Hunt, September 23, 2008). There are three levels of monads (1) the Bare, or pre-sentient level of monad is the dynamic pattern that represents the principles or field properties of nature such as fire and wind. For example the Earth?s magnetic field outside the Earth is reflected in magnetic particles within the Earth (2) The Basic or Sentient level of monad is the dynamic behaviour pattern displayed by animals as they show sensitivity to the world and are considered ?living mirrors of reality? (Personal communication H. Hunt, September 23, 2008). A case study of my cats over the years has shown that they will lie down on and gravitate towards things you put energy into, like what you are reading, or the pen you are holding. Therefore it does seem that they may follow underlying principles. (3) The third level of monad is called the Self-Aware/Self Conscious and is the highest level seen in humans. Leibniz?s claims the reason people get entranced by fire and waterfalls is because we are seeing the dynamic pattern of our own nervous system (Personal communication H. Hunt, September 23, 2008; Benjafield, 2005).
These dynamic patterns are said to have their own influence and can be found in mind and matter, since they are mirrors running on the same dynamic principles. According to this, Leibniz believes there is no mind-body dichotomy (Benjafield, 2005). One that opposes anyway, but perhaps the dichotomy?s interaction is reciprocal, rather than opposing (personal interpretation). The dynamic patterns in the mind and world are similar so that they are in tune with each other and vibrate in harmony (Benjafield, 2005), but run in a mirrored pattern (personal interpretation). Leibniz called this Pre-established Harmony (Leibniz, 1965). An example of a dynamic monad reflection pattern between different monad levels one and three are shown in Figure 5 (example of monad level two was the cat example). The author proposes this reciprocity between each level acts as a breath.
Monadology could be considered a Field Theory because each ?monad represents the whole universe? His theory goes on to say that the ?body expresses the whole universe by the connection of all matter? He also says that the ?soul represents the whole universe also in representing the body which belongs to it? (Leibniz, 1965, p. 14). So, in other words, the body is a microcosm or reflection of the universe as is the soul, yet they reside together as one. The monad could be seen as an equivalent to EP?s ?God particle? because Leibniz states that ?God alone is the primary Unity, or original simple substance, from which all monads are produced (Leibniz, 1965, p. 11). Also, the idea that the body (and the soul) represent a reflection of the universe is similar to Fechner?s psychophysical parallelism and thus healing could be seen as a consequence of the body-universe reciprocity as is expressed in the theory of Energy Psychology. So, the answer to the mind-body problem might be parallelism.
A philosopher from this tradition who would disagree with Leibniz holistic Field Theory would be John Locke because he believed in atomism and associationism which are reductionistic in nature. Reductionism flies in the face of holistic field theories because the former is equal to the sum of its parts whereas the latter is not. But, upon researching this debate, it has been said that the argument between the two could not ever be completely won by either side (Hunt, 2005). But, perhaps a solution to this debate can be found after all, through a Field Theory found in the hard sciences. This theory is called General Systems Theory.
Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1928 (personal communication, P. Tyson, November, 2005) noticed that all the branches of science had drifted apart and could no longer communicate with one another (ironically, much like what is happening within the field of Psychology today). He suggested that a theory be made that could incorporate the principles of all the sciences. Through this theory it was established that two extreme hypothetical opposites were needed to represent all the different scientific perspectives. But these systems were just that, hypothetical because there can be no example found to exist. According to this theory, one system was completely closed while the other completely open. Inside the open system, all parts communicate at once, at all times at the same rate, equally. This system could not exist because it would become overwhelmed and ?crash?. Conversely, inside the completely closed system the parts are completely shut off from one another so that there is no communication whatsoever between its parts. It is only within this system that true reductionism is possible because nothing is affecting anything. As soon as one part affects another, it can no longer be truly reduced to the sum of its parts. Therefore, if complete reductionism is impossible and cannot exist, then theories that rely on reductionism must be flawed, making ?team Leibniz? (Hunt, 2008) the winner.
Energy Psychology in Greek Philosophers
Pythagoras was another historical figure who would be interested in Energy Psychology. Pythagoras desired to find the meaning behind everything (Pyke, 1954). Pythagoras believed that behind every object in the material world there was a mathematical explanation (Benjafield, 2005). Pythagoras understood that the number ten was the most complete and mystical number and played with Tetratys which is a triangle that represents the first four numbers, when added equal ten (Porphyry, 1965). Although he recognized the supreme power of ten, he favoured the number three, almost like it was the most subtle and simplest number that could be considered complete. ?Even as there are three divine notions and three intelligible regions, so there is a triple word, for the Hierarchical Order always manifests itself by threes? (Pyke, 1954, p. 97). He enjoyed playing with triangles and the secrets of the triad.
Through his Enlightenment he believed that the ?Word was Number manifested by Form? and that ?God is the Supreme Music, the nature of which is harmony? (Pyke, 1954, p.97). In other words, when math manifests itself, it takes shape within the material world, thus providing the means for words (personal interpretation). Underlying this, at the root is God who represents music and dynamic energy (Porphyry, 1965).
Pythagoras also believed in reincarnation and had a theory about the planets. He believed the planets resonated with a dynamic energy called the ?music of the spheres? (Porphyry, 1965). His theory about where we go when we die was that wrongdoers would go to one of the planets in the solar system, and the moral and good go to the sun or the moon (Porphyry, 1965). But, while alive, individuals could learn how to resonate in Harmony with God and the universe, by tuning into the music of the spheres (Benjafield, 2005). Much like how EP suggests we tap into the universal or subtle energy. In order to achieve this Harmony, one would have to understand the union of the limited and the unlimited. The ?union of opposites? states that our soul desires to unite with the harmony created by this union (Benjafield, 2005). Thus, Pythagoras also had a Field Theory that attempted to unite two major opposing forces. If the soul can resonate with the frequency of this union, that individual can then resonate (harmonize) with other existing principles and structures (Benjafield, 2005).
Pythagoras can add to the research in Energy Psychology because if we really can tune into or harmonize with the music of the spheres, then perhaps we could use this for healing purposes. EP states that our auric field can help provide us with information about situations and people we meet. For example we go into a room and get a ?bad feeling? or upon meeting someone, you are either attracted to them or repulsed by them. Fechner agreed because he reduced all things to gravitational forces such as attraction and repulsion behind all energy (dynamic forces)(Heidelberger, 2004). So, perhaps the mechanism involved with assessing situations is our antenna-like auric field that can repel a union with the universe or attract it. Perhaps if we are repelled by this movement we can become sick, mental or physically. Therefore, some people may be more susceptible to this union than others, depending on how much of an open circuit they are (personal interpretation).
In relation to the health component of Energy Psychology, the sources were vague on Pythagoras? life, but there was a mention of ?the moral teachings of Pythagoras and his ?golden verses?? (Pyke, 1954, p.103). This implies Pythagoras, had an ideology that may have included guidelines to Enlightenment, very much like how EP suggests we can improve our lives when we balance or align our body?s energy with that of the universe?s.
Aristotle might be the figure in this era who would disagree with Pythagoras because he believed that the body and mind were the same substance and therefore there is no breath-like reciprocity or interaction between the two.
E P is new to Psychology and has not yet been truly accepted by the field due to its research design flaws, but there is a lot of research and potential evidence that it can work. Future research could perhaps run experiments with better controls such as the use a control group of patients on waiting lists for treatment. Before and after physiological measures could be used to determine the degree in which the person was cured or feels better as well as questionnaires. Perhaps the devices mentioned in this paper that measure energy could be made to be more sensitive. Adding these methodological suggestions to experiments using Energy Psychology may allow Energy Psychology to gain more credibility in the Psychological community.
Energy Psychology has taken us through a journey from Psychology to Philosophy, but it truly does not end there because Taoist principles of overcoming duality to find the underlying unity in all things were taught before Pythagoras. Buddha also had guidelines to Enlightenment and desired to unite the self with the universe. Predating this was the Hindu tradition of teaching the individual (Anatman) to find his or her link to the universe (Brahman). Since EP is about uniting the self with the universe it is not surprising that the journey took us back to Religion; from a ?God particle? to God Hymnself, thus uniting Psychology with Religion.
Uniting Science and Religion/Spirituality
The possible union of science and religion could also come from the ideas behind this paper (See Part 1, History of Energy). Both science and religion recognize this type of energy and wish to tap it, and/or unify it. I suppose one wants to unify and the other wishes to dominate, control and subject the other to evasive testing. There are many things that refuse to be subjected to the scrutiny of the scientific method (ESP, Love, Mystical Experiences, Synchronicity, God?) Perhaps the energy that produces the principles that science relies so heavily on is the breath or spirit of God. Psychology tries so hard to be a science, and it can never be, science works on principles that remain constant and rarely change. Humans are the opposite, they remain constantly changing and rarely behave in the same way twice. James (Varieties of Religious Experiences) believes that even the same stimulus will never affect a person the same way twice. Therefore Science and Religion are utilizing the same energy field and/or particle (even though the motives appear to be different). What if they were to see eye to eye??? What if they realized they are tapping into or utilizing the same energy principles? <<<they appear opposite because of their perspective - the principles are the same; the one just mirrors the other. See the Physics/Math section for more details regarding this>>>
There are many ways to potentially unite Science and Religion and/or Spirituality see the Science/Religion page for other ways to unite Science and Religion.Suggestions for Future Research Abstract
What about a ?New Psychology,? one that unites all branches of Psychology, one that makes quantitative shake hands with qualitative. A New Psychology that states all methodologies of study are valid and should be treated as such. The paper contains comparative evidence, correlational evidence, experimental evidence and case study evidence. If patterns can be made from comparing all four of these branches of research, then they should all make up for each other?s weaknesses (P. C: Hunt, 2008). Therefore, all topically relevant sources with a similar pattern are valid. This being said, all ?objectively? observable findings of life patterns seen in the animals (human and non), events (news sources, weather patterns, anomalies), engineering, earth sciences, biology (micro and non), neurology, astrology, pop culture, religion, spirituality and math, could be considered valid comparative evidence candidates. Likewise, all correlational studies and research done in psychology (or anywhere) could be considered valid correlational evidence. All experiments done in physics (quantum and non), hard sciences, chemistry, electromagnetics, molecular biology, health and psychology should be considered valid experimental evidence. Lastly if all things can be brought together in a unified way, then references to blogs, internet sources, biographies, magazines, and stories found anywhere in any format are valid because they could be considered case study evidence. In conclusion it was found that a Unified Field theory could only truly be made if it unites all things, not just what Physics tries to unite. This paper has used comparative evidence to devise a theory that encompasses All That Is in the universe. This paper proposes a Field Theory in psychology and a Unified Field Theory for physics. It also consists of a proposed mechanism of how spirit and matter can be united, along with a mathematical equation to back it up. The operational definition of God for the purposes of this paper is an energy source of all types of energy including those underlying all things in the universe.
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Figure 2: Contemporary experiments done with a Field Meter (Marette, 2003).